their study. The study used three instruments for collecting data as follows:
A 20-item self-report questionnaire designed to target the students’ situation-specific motivational disposition related to their current L2 course was distributed. Some of the items of this questionnaire were adapted from previous studies like that of Gardner (1985) and Clément and colleagues (1994), while others were newly written to explore the validity of some motivational components such as students’ attitudes towards their current L2 course, linguistic self-confidence, L2 classroom anxiety, etc. The questionnaire was translated from English into the students’ Korean mother language.
A salient classroom observation instrument was designed specifically for the study. This instrument, referred to as The Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching (MOLT), was developed in the light of the real time coding principle of Spada and Fröhlich’s (1995) which is known as Communication Orientation of Language Teaching (COLT). MOLT also derived some categories of observable teachers’ behaviours from the motivational strategies framework for FL classrooms proposed by Dörnyei (2001b). This instrument was used to assess both the quality of the teachers’ teaching practices and the levels of the students’ motivated behaviour.
A post-lesson teacher evaluation scale was introduced: a nine-point rating scale was developed to provide a post hoc evaluation of the teachers’ motivational practices. This scale was drawn partly from Gardner’s (1985) Attitudes toward the L2 teacher scale. The scale was completed by the observer immediately at the end of each observed class.
This study found that the language teachers’ motivational practice in classroom was strongly linked, and significantly correlated to, their students’ motivated learning behaviours.
In fact, most of the motivational strategies tested in the previously discussed studies are of big value in motivating foreign language learners. It is, however, worth mentioning the fact elaborated by Dörnyei (1994, 2001b) that not every strategy can work in every context. Dörnyei has clarified that the motivational strategies he proposed are not rock solid golden rules, but rather suggestions that may work with one teacher or group better than another, and which may work better today than tomorrow (2001b). He adds that the differences in learners’ culture, age, and proficiency level, and their relationship to the target language may render some strategies completely useless or meaningless, while others could be particularly effective.
In 2001, Dörnyei has highlighted the fact that there is a variety of strategies that can promote classroom L2 learning and that it is appropriate to organise these diverse techniques under a systematic theoretical framework in order to accommodate them. He developed a systematic framework of L2 motivational strategies called Motivational Teaching Practice (see Figure 2.10). This framework was specifically designed to generate and maintain L2 motivation in the classroom setting. This model consists of four dimensions, and presents the main macro strategies and many sub micro-strategies as follows:
Figure 2.10. The Components of Motivational L2 Teaching Practice (cited in Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.108)
2.7.1. Creating Basic Motivational Conditions
This dimension of motivational strategies involves conditions in the classroom that seem necessary to create basic motivational conditions, such as demonstrating proper teacher behaviour, creating a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere, and generating a cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms.
126.96.36.199. Demonstrating Proper Teacher Behaviour
In their study in Hungary, Dörnyei and Csizér (1998) found that participants rated the teacher’s own behaviour as the most important and an extremely underutilized motivational factor in the language classroom. In 1999, Chambers recruited a sample of British secondary school learners of German as a second language and investigated many factors that were hypothesised to contribute to learners’ appraisal of their L2 learning. He came up with a similar conclusion that out of all the factors surveyed, the teacher’s behaviour came on the top as the most important factor. The same finding emerged in the study of Cheng and Dörnyei (2007) in Taiwan. They emphasised that Taiwanese English teachers were aware of their roles as leaders in the learner groups. Proper teacher behaviour can be displayed through many aspects of the teacher’s behaviour, like their enthusiasm towards teaching, show of commitment to students’ learning, their development of a positive relationship with learners, etc.
188.8.131.52.1. Teacher’s Enthusiasm
The importance of the teacher enthusiasm for teaching is well-recognised (see Csikzentmihalyi et al., 1993; Csikzentmihalyi, 1997; Dörnyei, 2001b; Brophy, 2004; Knight, 2006). Brophy (2004) has theorised that enthusiasm means identifying good reasons for viewing a topic as interesting, meaningful, or important and then communicating these reasons to students when teaching the topic. He clarifies that if the teacher presents a topic with enthusiasm, explains to his or her students that the topic is interesting, unique, important, or worthwhile students are likely to adopt the same attitude as that of the teacher. Csikzentmihalyi and colleagues (1993) and Csikzentmihalyi (1997) have claimed that it is the enthusiastic teachers whom students always recognise as the ones who made a difference in their lives; they usually find permanent places in their students’ memories. Csikzentmihalyi (1997) has acknowledged that enthusiastic teachers are those who love their subject matter and show by dedication and passion that there is nothing else on earth they would rather be doing. Csikzentmihalyi clarifies that students might make fun of the enthusiastic teacher’s dedication for his subject, but that they, deep inside, admire that passion. Dörnyei (2001b) argues that many scholars go in line with Csikzentmihalyi’s belief that enthusiasm for one’s specialisation, especially when making this enthusiasm public rather than hidden, is one of the most motivating techniques of effective teaching. One way in which the teacher can project enthusiasm for teaching is through modelling. This process, according to Dörnyei (2001b), involves setting an example that involves motivational factors such as effort expenditure, positive attitudes, and interest in the subject.
In her model of teacher’s credibility, Knight (2006) categorised the teacher’s passion for teaching and his/her enthusiasm in the classroom as one source of his/her credibility –an important player in fostering students’ motivation. Teacher’s credibility has been referred to as the attitude of a receiver toward a source regarding the perceived competence, trustworthiness, and caring (McCroskey & Young, 1981; Teven & McCroskey, 1997). Knight (2006) has developed a model for teacher credibility and labelled the three key components of that model as competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism (see Figure 2.11).
Figure 2.11. Knight’s (2006) Model of Teacher’s Credibility (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p.108)
Knight explains that each of these dimensions is independent. That is, a teacher may be perceived to be quite competent but not trustworthy; or dynamic but lacking in knowledge of the subject matter (i.e. not competent). Dynamism in this model has been conceptualised by Knight as the teacher’s passion for teaching and his/her enthusiasm in the classroom; this concept is more concerned with the presentation skills of the teacher. According to her, a dynamic teacher is the one who is more likely to be confident, articulate, unpredictable, and energetic, the one who changes the pace in a single class by using a variety of teaching strategies and adds his or her own personality to the class. Berlo and colleagues (1969) also considered dynamism as
a source of credibility.
Some preceding studies, like that of Martin and colleagues (1997), have emphasised the fact that the highly credible teachers’ students usually report high levels of motivation. Pogue and Ahyun (2006, p. 333) state that “as with immediacy, highly credible teachers also influence students’ state motivation and, by doing so, may impact student success.” Some of the strategies that represent demonstrating enthusiasm for teaching the foreign language include showing students the teacher’s interest in, and dedication to, the English language and sharing that with them, and showing students that the teacher values learning English language as a meaningful experience that enriches his/her life.
184.108.40.206.2. Teacher’s Commitment
The second dimension of the proper teacher behaviour is showing commitment to students’ progress by taking their learning seriously. Burden (2000) has highlighted the importance of keeping an eye on students’ progress by stating that it is important to closely and frequently monitor students’ progress, especially that of those who are low achieving or struggling, in order to provide the assistance they may need and to keep them on the task. The importance of this strategy was also emphasised by Dörnyei (2001b) when he has asserted that the teacher’s commitment to students’ progress is an important aspect of the teacher behaviour that cannot be over emphasised. He clarified that it is important that every student in class feels that the teacher cares, and that the teacher is not there just for salary. According to him, it is important for the teacher that his/her students succeed and that the teacher works as hard as students towards this success. Dörnyei adds that the fastest way to undermining students’ motivation is if they feel that the teacher does not care. He adds “the spiritual and sometime physical absence of the teacher sends such a great message of ‘it doesn’t matter’ to students, that everybody,