منبع پایان نامه ارشد درمورد frequency، (Cronbach، each

دسامبر 29, 2018 0 By mitra7--javid
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identify those motivational strategies that were underused relative to the importance attached to them by the participating teachers. Following Cheng and Dörnyei (2007), three different measures were obtained (see Frequency section of Table 3.3). First, the mean frequency of use (M) was computed for each strategy. When calculating the mean for each macro-strategy, the item with the lowest score in the scale was excluded (for rationale, see Cheng and Dörnyei, 2007, p. 161). Second, the difference between the mean frequency of use of each strategy and the mean frequency of use of all the strategies (Mean-Diff) was calculated. The Mean-Diff score of each macro-strategy is the average of the Mean-Diff of all its constituent items except the item with the lowest score. The Mean-diff score indicates the extent to which the frequency of use of a specific strategy is above or below the average frequency of strategy use. Next, the importance and frequency scores for each macro-strategy and strategy were standardized. Finally, the difference between each pair of scores was computed by subtracting the standardized importance z-score from its corresponding standardized frequency z-score. Note that, when calculating the macro-strategies’ mean scores for the relative frequency scores (z-diff), no item was excluded. Thus, by using standardized scores, the differences between the absolute values of the items become irrelevant. A negative z-diff score indicates that a strategy is underused relative to the importance that the respondents attached to it, whereas a positive score suggests that the strategy is overused.

Table 3.3. Importance and Frequency Survey Results: Descriptive Statistics and Rankings of Ten Macro-strategies and Related Strategies
Macro-strategies (ranked according to importance)
Related strategies
Importance

M SD
Frequency

M Mean-Diff ᵃ Z-Diff ᵇ (ranking ͨ )
1. Proper teacher behaviour (Cronbach α=0.73)
5.54
0.46
5.15
0.39
0.63 (1)
(2) Show students you care about them
5.88
0.33
5.44
0.44
0.82
(23) Establish good rapport with students
5.65
0.78
5.35
0.29
0.25
(47) Be yourself in front of students
5.53
0.72
5.12
0.41
0.21
(17) Show your enthusiasm for teaching
5.41
0.79
5.03
0.39
0.01
(40) Share with students that you value English as a meaningful experience
5.23
0.97
4.79
0.44
-0.21
2. Promote learners’ self-confidence (Cronbach α=/0.70)
5.34
0.64
4.79
0.45
-0.18 (4)
(34) Provide students with positive feedback
5.47
0.80
5.09
0.39
0.11
(11) Design tasks that are within the students’ ability
5.47
0.94
4.68
0.80
0.63
(36) Teach students learning techniques
5.29
0.77
4.38
0.92
0.52
(28) Encourage students to try harder
5.29
1.05
5.15
0.14
-0.50
(33) Make clear to students that communicating meaning effectively is more important than being grammatically correct
5.17
1.07
4.65
0.54
-0.16
3. Recognise students’ effort (Cronbach α= /0.61)
5.25
0.42
4.97
0.28
-0.52 (3)
(46) Recognise students’ effort and achievement
5.53
0.72
5.35
0.17
-0.10
(42) Promote effort attributions
5.50
0.61
5.32
0.18
-0.12
(8) Monitor students’ progress and celebrate their victory
5.00
1.06
4.50
0.50
-0.49
(15) Make sure grades reflect students’ effort and hard work
4.88
1.05
4.71
0.18
-1.09
4. Promote group cohesiveness and group norms (Cronbach α=/0.77)
5.24
0.68
4.42
0.72
0.08 (6)
(5) Explain the importance of the class rules
5.59
0.71
5.30
0.29
0.17
(3) Allow students to get to know each other
5.41
0.79
4.29
1.11
0.94
(16) Let students suggest class rules
5.23
1.03
4.21
1.03
0.55
(35) Ask students to work toward the same goal
5.06
1.03
3.79
1.27
0.59
(44) Encourage students to share personal experiences and thoughts
4.94
1.03
4.53
0.42
-0.69
5. Present tasks properly (Cronbach α=/0.59)
5.17
0.74
4.98
0.36
-0.06 (2)
(6) Give clear instructions by modeling
5.41
0.79
5.38
0.03
-0.45
(25) Give good reasons to students as to why a particular task is meaningful
4.94
1.03
4.59
0.36
-0.77
6. Make the learning tasks stimulating (Cronbach α=/0.65)
5.14
0.63
4.33
0.76
0.00 (7)
(45) Present various auditory and visual teaching aids
5.53
0.62
4.56
0.97
0.93
(13) Make tasks challenging
5.29
0.92
3.91
1.40
1.13
(12) Introduce various interesting topics
5.18
0.95
4.23
0.94
0.34
(27) Encourage students to create products
5.06
1.20
4.32
0.74
-0.09
(43) Make tasks attractive by including novel and fantasy element
4.94
1.03
4.18
0.77
-0.24
(18) Break the routine by varying the presentation format
4.88
1.41
4.76
0.12
-1.17
7. Promote learner autonomy (Cronbach α=/0.70)
5.09
0.73
4.30
0.77
-0.04(8)
(37) Adopt the role of a ‘facilitator’
5.35
1.06
4.71
0.65
0.25
(14) Teach self-motivating strategies
5.23
0.83
4.12
1.12
0.66
(24) Encourage peer teaching and group presentation
5.18
1.07
4.62
0.57
-0.12
(48) Allow students to assess themselves
5.12
1.17
4.21
0.91
0.22
(22) Involve students in designing and running the English course
4.94
1.14
3.73
1.21
0.32
(29) Give students choices in deciding how and when they will be assessed
4.77
1.52
4.44
0.32
-1.10
8. Creating a pleasant classroom climate (Cronbach α=/0.86)
5.07
0.49
4.69
0.48
-0.34 (5)
(41) Avoid social comparison
5.29
1.10
5.00
0.29
-0.31
(1) Bring in and encourage humour
5.12
0.60
4.56
0.57
-0.21
(30) Create a supportive classroom climate that promotes risk-taking
5.06
0.90
5.23
-0.17
-1.26
(21) Use a short and interesting opening activity to start each class
4.82
1.24
3.97
0.85
-0.33
9. Increase learners’ goal-orientedness (Cronbach α=/0.74)
4.94
0.84
4.06
0.88
-0.21 (9)
(26) Find out students’ needs and build them into curriculum
5.00
0.77
4.29
0.71
-0.22
(10) Encourage students to set learning goals
4.88
1.17
4.73
0.15
-1.13
(20) Help students develop realistic beliefs about English learning
4.76
1.30
4.30
0.46
-0.92
(31) Display the class goal in a wall chart and review it regularly
4.12
1.05
2.92
2.21
1.89
10. Familiarise learners with L2-related values (Cronbach α=/0.67)
4.89
0.66
3.66
1.23
0.38 (10)
(4) Familiarise students with the cultural background of the target language
5.47
0.72
4.38
1.09
1.00
(39) Increase the amount of English you use in the class
5.35
0.70
4.82
0.53
0.10
(9) Remind students of the benefits of mastering English
5.29
0.85
5.26
0.04
-0.61
(7) Invite senior students to share their English learning experiences
5.23
1.15
2.32
1.91
0.10
(38) Encourage students to use English outside the classroom
5.1
2
0.78
4.26
0.86
0.16
(32) Introduce authentic cultural materials
4.88
1.11
2.94
1.94
1.16
(19) Invite English-speaking foreigners to class
3.75
1.61
1.54
2.25
-0.22

ᵃ Mean-Diff = the difference between the item’s mean frequency and the overall mean frequency of all the items.
ᵇ Standardized z-scores were used; a negative score indicates underuse of a strategy relative to the importance attached to it.
ͨ Macro-strategies are ranked according to frequency (relative to importance)